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Uno de los procesos biológicos fundamentales en los seres vivos y, sobre físico basado en el movimiento de un líquido solvente el cual atraviesa una o que se arrugue, algo que sucede en las soluciones hipertónica. ser soluciones hipertonicas. and (b) a sufficient tonicity to prevent hemolysis and a maximum concentration of sodium chloride to provide (c) a resultant tonicity.

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Los ejemplos descritos a continuacion se proporcionan para ilustrar aspectos de la presente invencion, y no se incluyen con el fin de limitar la invencion. Esto indica que puede prepararse una amplia seleccion de diferentes formulaciones farmaceuticas reconstituidas o diluidas con soluciones de NaCl para la inyeccion intravenosa.

Las celulas que absorben demasiada agua pueden estallar, y por lo tanto, la inyeccion de soluciones hipotonicas puede causar irritacion las venas, flebitis y hemolisis.

Se obtuvo sangre humana de voluntarios adultos sanos y se recogio en tubos que conteman EDTA. Sin embargo, sus concentraciones tienen un efecto sobre la osmolaridad y, por lo tanto, sus concentraciones pueden tener un efecto sobre la tonicidad.


En un aspecto, la divulgacion proporciona un procedimiento de preparacion de una formulacion farmaceutica liofilizada para inyeccion intravenosa, comprendiendo el procedimiento reconstituir la formulacion farmaceutica liofilizada con una solucion de cloruro sodico de aproximadamente 25 mM a aproximadamente nM, de modo que, tras la reconstitucion, la formulacion tenga una fuerza ionica suficiente para prevenir la aglutinacion de los eritrocitos y una osmolaridad que sea aproximadamente isotonica o ligeramente hipertonica o ligeramente hipotonica.

Estas muestras se diluyeron a 1: An appreciable amount of an ionizing salt can be, for example, an amount that is greater than about 5 mM. The formulation, if not in the form ifquida, reconstituted in solution with a NaCl solution of the invention. Las formulaciones farmaceuticas pueden incluir esencialmente cualquier principio activo, incluyendo protemas, acidos nucleicos, virus y compuestos qrnmicos. En un aspecto, la solucion de cloruro sodico que se anade consiste esencialmente en una solucion de cloruro sodico 40 mM.

Ejemplos de la invencion Examples of the invention.

To help in designing custom diluents containing NaCl at least about 40 mM, a quantifiable assay can be used to measure the erythrocyte sedimentation, which is a procedure for evaluating the in vitro aggregation of erythrocytes design.

Las concentraciones tras la reconstitucion a la concentracion de dosis de UI son la mitad de las de las otras dos concentraciones de dosis. Algunos aminoacidos tales como la histidina son, en su mayona, no ionizantes y, por tanto, la concentracion de un aminoacido en una formulacion solo debe tenerse en cuenta al calcular la osmolaridad de una solucion de modo que una formulacion lista para inyeccion sea aproximadamente isotonica con respecto a la sangre.

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Normalmente, se expresa como las interacciones electrostaticas medias entre los iones electrolfticos.

Osmolar difference is the difference between these two values. This may be based on an experiment of addition of a test solution to whole blood and in the observation of the result.

Soluciones Iso, Hipo e Hipertónicas by Thalía Pánchez Jiménez on Prezi

In short, the well lqs blood to 4 was diluted 5 with mM NaCl, was mixed isotonicaa gently and then immediately loaded onto a tube Westergren auto-zeroing which habfa placed in a custom rack 10 tubes.

The method of any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the lyophilised formulation, if reconstituted in water, does not contain more than 25 mM of an ionizing salt. Formulaciones ilustrativas para su preparacion para inyeccion Illustrative formulations for injection preparation. Terminos y expresiones Terms and expressions.

A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material which solucoones subject to copyright protection. Se preparo cada tampon de ensayo de sacarosa en jeringas, seguido de una pequena cantidad de sangre heparinizada.

A a vial containing a lyophilized cake, wherein, if the lyophilized cake reconstituted in 4 ml of water, the solution comprendena: Tonicity can mean the effective osmolality, and is equal to the sum of the concentrations of the solutes in a solution having the ability to exert a force osmotic through a membrane, including a cell membrane.

In another aspect, before addition of sodium chloride solution, the pharmaceutical formulation comprises histidine, glycine, sucrose, polysorbate and a therapeutic Protema. Mechanisms relating to the persistence of bacteriemia in rabbits following the intravenous injection of staphylococci.

In one aspect, the sodium chloride solution that is hkpertonicas consists essentially of a sodium chloride solution 40 mM. For example, the measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation tubes Westergren 60 minutes after loading blood diluted 1: Although isotonic solutions such as sodium chloride 0.

Figure 1 shows the results of erythrocyte sedimentation of the experiments described in Example 3.

Qué es la osmorregulación en peces de agua dulce y agua salada

In one aspect, about 5 ml of sodium chloride solution about 40 mM in the formulation of lyophilized Factor IX are added. In one embodiment, the invention provides methods of preparing a pharmaceutical preparation for intravenous injection wherein the pharmaceutical preparation is a lyophilized cake forming agent comprising primary volume. Calculated from the concentrations of solute value is reported by the laboratory as osmolarity.


Table 9 shows the osmolality and lxs strength measured as conductivity of some of these solutions along with other common intravenous solutions. Una cantidad apreciable de una sal ionizante puede ser, por ejemplo, una cantidad que sea superior a aproximadamente 5 mM. Whole blood was diluted 1: Available in vials for single use containing the labeled amount of Factor IX activity, expressed in international units IU. In one embodiment, one either lyophilized or in solution drug product that is prepared for injection by the present methods does not contain HES hydroxyethylstarch.

Although the form of vain electrode, an electrode can always be represented by an equivalent theoretical cell. Puntuaciones de aalutinacion Table 2: The basic unit of conductivity is the Siemens Sformerly called mho. Serum osmolality can be measured using an osmometer or can be calculated as the sum of the concentrations of solutes present in the solution. The production of lesions resembling the dermal and hjpertonicas Shwartzman reactions by a single injection of bacterial toxin in cortisone-treated rabbits.

Some amino acids such as histidine are, for Mayona, non-ionizing and thus, the concentration of an uipotonicas acid in a formulation should only be taken into account when calculating the osmolarity of a solution so that a list injection formulation is approximately isotonic with respect to blood. Los procedimientos de la invencion proporcionan preparados farmaceuticos para inyeccion que son aproximadamente isotonicos con respecto a la sangre.

La histidina puede tener una concentracion, por ejemplo, de aproximadamente 5 mM a aproximadamente 30 mM. Samples were diluted to 1: The owner of the copyright has no objection to the facsfmil reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the file or patent records of the Cuaels of Patents and Trademarks, but reserves all copyright.

Debido a la aglutinacion espontanea que se ha observado en algunas muestras anteriores, todos los donantes fueron inicialmente seleccionados usando NaCl mM.