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Dynamic stretches affect dynamic flexibility and static stretches affect static flexibility (and dynamic ballistic stretching; dynamic stretching; active stretching ; passive (or relaxed) stretching; static stretching; isometric stretching; PNF stretching. PNF, static and ballistic stretching are all effec- clients with therapeutic use of PNF for clients with conditions sive[18,] and active flexibility,[2,8,15,] with the other than .. neuromuscular facilitation stretch techniques on trained and. Sady SP, Wortman M, Blanke D: Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Arch Phys Med Rehabil, –,

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Assume the position of a passive stretch for the desired muscle. The free arm was taken from the board to the maximal reached point. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the following data: This makes it harder for the fatigued muscle fibers to contract in resistance to a subsequent stretch see section The Stretch Reflex.

The results of the present study partly corroborate the findings by Spernoga et al.

Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

The proper way to perform an isometric stretch is as follows: Finally, relax the muscle for at least 20 seconds. Grandi 18 also confirmed that passive stretching of 30 seconds has the facilitatino efficiency of four repetitions of 18 seconds.

A board developed by Brasileiro et al. This enables the entire muscle to stretch beyonds its initial maximum and results in increased flexibility.

The muscles are then relaxed for 20 seconds before performing another PNF technique. Amplitude de movimento e flexibilidade. When it is applied, a reflex muscular relaxing occurs, which associated with the passive stretching, promotes an increase in the MAB gain For flexibilityy, bringing your leg up high and then holding it there with your hand. The other groups received the stretching protocol with PNF being only different concerning the number of repetitions of the maneuver per day, being the measurements daily performed, prior and post protocol.

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The five seconds contraction was used because according to previous research, the optimum duration of the isometric contraction in the PNF techniques is of three to six seconds The acute effects of dynamic and ballistic stretching on vertical jump height, force, and power.

Passive extensibility of skeletal muscle: PNF was initially developed as a method of rehabilitating stroke victims.

Nonetheless, felxibility of them have related frequency and stretching techniques which involve active muscular inhibition. Throughout this document, when the term static stretching or passive stretching is used, its intended meaning is the definition of passive stretching as described in the previous section. The sample was limited to the female sex due to the subjects’ availability of this gender; moreover, research has demonstrated that the variations of the female hormonal cycle, seric estradiol level or menstrual cycle do not influence the muscular flexibility A previous study was conducted with eight subjects in which the measurements obtained with the instrument were compared with photometry.

Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the following data: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. In dynamic stretches, there are no bounces or “jerky” movements. However, HFLTA cites a study whose results suggest that performing repetitions of a PNF technique for a given muscle group is not necessarily any more effective than performing the technique only once. A biomechanical evaluation of cyclic and static stretch in human skeletal muscle.

Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

Movement Articular Breadth MAB or joints mobility depends on the peri and intra-articular soft tissues extensibility.


Also like isometric stretching, PNF stretching helps strengthen the muscles that are contracted and therefore is good for increasing active flexibility as well as passive flexibility. The results did not show significant difference between the two stretching doses. Stretches are either dynamic meaning they involve motion or static meaning they involve no motion.

Therefore, future studies may analyze how the flexibility loss occurs after a stretching protocol. In this case, some of the muscle fibers are already stretched before the contraction, and, if held long enough, the initial passive stretch overcomes the stretch reflex see section The Stretch Reflex and triggers the lengthening reaction see section Fzcilitation Lengthening Reactioninhibiting the stretched fibers from contracting.

Probably, one 1 inhibition of the neurotendinous organ by active isometric contraction of five seconds is sufficient to acquire the expected muscular relaxing in a stretching session in the hamstring muscles. The isometric contraction of the stretched muscle accomplishes several things: The first measurement was preceded by five minutes of stationary cycling with standard resistance at mild intensity 25 Statiic. Future studies should be conducted with the purpose to better understand the immediate effect loss after the application of stretching protocols.

AlterStatic stretching consists of stretching a muscle or group of muscles to its farthest point and then maintaining or holding that position, whereas Passive stretching consists of a relaxed person who is relaxed passive while some external force either a person or an apparatus brings the joint through its range of motion.